Magnesium and Manganese

Magnesium

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Benefits:

  • Needed mineral for muscle and nerve function.
  • Needed for the regulation of blood pressure.
  • Needed for parathyroid hormone secretion  which is important for skeletal development.
  • Assists to turn the food into energy.
  • It is intimately involved with calcium in metabolism.

Deficiency:

  • Deficiency is rare but it is characterised by progressive muscle weakness and neuromuscular dysfunction.
  • Low blood magnesium is common in severely ill patients and patients with malabsorption disorders (e.g. acute pancreatitis, alcoholism, prolonged diarrhoea or vomiting).

Toxicity:

  • High doses of magnesium for a short time can cause diarrhoea.
  • Not enough evidence exist to illustrate the effects of high magnesium intake in the longer term.

Examples of dietary sources include:

  • Green leafy vegetables (e.g. spinach), nuts, brown rice, fish, meat, dairy foods, legumes, cashews, sunflower seeds, whole-wheat bread.

Reference Nutrient Intakes (approximate values for adults):

  • 300 mg a day for men
  • 270 mg a day for women

 

Manganese  

manganese

 

Benefits:

  • It is required for bone formation and for energy metabolism.
  • It helps to make and activate a number of enzymes in the body.

Deficiency:

  • Deficiency of manganese is rare.

Toxicity:

  • Long term high manganese doses might cause muscle pain, nerve damage and neurological symptoms (e.g. depression).

Examples of dietary sources include:

  • Tea, bread, nuts, cereals, oats, green vegetables, legumes.

Reference Nutrient Intakes (approximate values for adults):

  • Healthy individuals should be able to get all the manganese needed from their daily diet.

 

Bibliography:

 

British Nutrition Foundation., 2016. [online]. Available from: https://www.nutrition.org.uk/

Harvard Health Publications., 2009. Listing of vitamins. [online]. Available from: http://www.health.harvard.edu

National Health Service. 2016. [online]. Available from: http://www.nhs.uk/pages/home.aspx

Department of Health. 1991. Dietary reference values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. London: The Stationery Office.

 

 

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