Benefits: It is responsible for the regulation of body fluid content and electrolyte balance. Needed for muscle contraction. Needed for the absorption of some nutrients and water from the gut. Deficiency: Sodium deficiency is rare but it can occur in some cases such as excess sweating, diarrhoea, renal failure, drugs such as diuretics may remove […]

Selenium and Zinc

Selenium     Benefits: It has an important role in the immune system and in reproduction. It is an important component of some antioxidant enzymes. It helps to prevent damage to cells and tissues. It helps regulate thyroid hormone activity. Deficiency: Deficiency is rare. Toxicity: High selenium intake causes selenosis which is a condition which […]


   Benefits: Essential for controlling the balance of fluids in the body. Essential for the normal functioning of cells. Needed for muscles contractions. A diet rich in potassium may lower blood pressure as it promotes the loss of sodium in the urine. It helps maintain steady heartbeat and it is vital for normal functioning of […]


Benefits: Helps to build strong bones and teeth. Assists to the release of energy from food. Deficiency: Rare as phosphorus is available in many foods.          – Toxicity: Phosphorus has very low toxicity but symptoms of very high doses, commonly delivered by supplements, include diarrhoea and stomach pain. Consuming large amounts of phosphorus for a long […]

Magnesium and Manganese

Magnesium    Benefits: Needed mineral for muscle and nerve function. Needed for the regulation of blood pressure. Needed for parathyroid hormone secretion  which is important for skeletal development. Assists to turn the food into energy. It is intimately involved with calcium in metabolism. Deficiency: Deficiency is rare but it is characterised by progressive muscle weakness […]


Benefits:  Essential mineral for the body as it helps to form haemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle cells. Plays an important role in the immune system. Required for normal energy metabolism. Deficiency: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency condition. More than 2 billion people worldwide suffer from iron deficiency […]

Iodine and Sulphur

Iodine   Benefits: Essential component of the thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) which are essential regulators of metabolic rate, physical and mental development. In the fetus is essential for the development of the nervous system during the first three months of gestation. It prevents goiter and a congenital thyroid disorder. Deficiency: Iodine deficiency is rare […]

Copper and Fluoride

Copper   Benefits: Helps to produce red and white blood cells. Needed to utilise iron efficiently and is thought to be important for infant growth, brain development, strong bones and the immune system. Deficiency: Dietary deficiency is rare in adults but it can include defects in cardiovascular function. Deficiency in infants and young children may […]

Nickel and Chromium

Nickel Benefits: Influences the amount of iron the body absorbs from food. Could be important in assisting to make red blood cells. Deficiency: Deficiency is rare. Toxicity: High doses of nickel might cause skin rash. Examples of dietary sources include: Nuts, lentils, oats. Reference Nutrient Intakes (approximate values for adults): Healthy individuals should be able […]


  Benefits: It is essential to the body to develop and maintain healthy bones and teeth. Approximately 99% of calcium is in the bones and teeth where its role is primarily structural. It assists to the regulation of muscle contractions including the heart. It plays an important role to blood clotting, hormone secretion, transmission of […]